Azo dyes are used in abundance in several industries like textile, printing, paper, plastic, cosmetics, paints, etc. Extensive discharge of such dyes in adjacent water bodies has raised much environmental concern. Azo dyes are toxic to living organisms and their genotoxic and carcinogenic potentials are intensified on being released as mixtures. In the recent years, various microorganisms have been isolated and reported to possess tremendous potential for efficient dye degradation. However, the process of bioremediation is highly controlled by experimental factors like effluent pH, temperature and concentration of dyes in solution. Therefore, appropriate optimization of these factors is to be determined in order to ensure maximum efficiency of this process. This review highlights application of immobilization techniques of bacterial cells for achievement of successful biodegradation. In this study, the existing problems of dye pollution and possible improvisations for obtaining enhanced bioremediation of dyes have also been discussed. © 2016 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.