Reproductive health is a serious concern not only for adults but also for male and female adolescents. The present study looks at the similarities and differences in reproductive health awareness and behavior among adolescent males living in peri-urban and rural areas of the State of West Bengal, India. Questionnaire data was collected from 111 school-age adolescent boys (55 periurban and 56 rural) between the ages of 15 and 18. Results show that the level of awareness about some aspects of reproductive health seems greater among peri-urban boys than their rural counterparts. However, in terms of reproductive health behaviors both groups appear similar. © 2007 by the Men's Studies Press, LLC. All rights reserved.