The CAD is a relatively young interdisciplinary technology, has had a tremendous impact on medical diagnosis specifically cancer detection. The accuracy of CAD to detect abnormalities on medical image analysis requires a robust segmentation algorithm. To achieve accurate segmentation, an efficient edge-detection algorithm is essential. Medical images like USG, X-Ray, CT and MRI exhibit diverse image characteristics but are essentially collection of intensity variations from which specific abnormalities are needed to be isolated. In this chapter a robust medical image enhancement and edge detection algorithm is proposed, using tree-based adaptive thresholding technique. It has been compared with different classical edge-detection techniques using one sample two tail t-test to exam whether the null hypothesis can be supported. The proposed edge-detection algorithm showing 0.07 p-values and 2.411 t-stat where α = 0.025. Moreover the proposed edge is single pixeled and connected which is very significant for medical edge detection. © 2018 by IGI Global. All rights reserved.