Background: The high incidence and relatively good prognosis of breast cancer has made it the most prevalent cancer in the world today. A large number of distinct mutations and polymorphisms in the p53 gene have been reported worldwide, but there is no report regarding the role of this inherited susceptibility gene in breast cancer risk among the Bengalee Hindu Caste females of West Bengal, India. Aim of the Study: We investigated the distribution and the nature of p53 gene mutations and polymorphisms in exons 5-7 in a cohort of 110 Bengalee Hindu breast cancer patients and 127 age, sex and caste matched controls by direct sequencing. Results: We did not observe any mutations and polymorphisms in our studied individuals. Conclusion: We therefore conclude that mutations in exons 5-7 of p53 gene are rare causes of breast cancer among Bengalee Hindu caste females, and therefore of little help for genetic counseling and diagnostic purposes.